Tag Archives: Cancer

Fresh meat…How sweet: A Review of the badness of meat

A review of large-scale studies involving more than 1.5 million people found all-cause mortality is higher for those who eat meat, particularly red or processed meat, on a daily basis. Conducted by physicians from Mayo Clinic in Arizona, “Is Meat Killing Us?”  Is Meat Killing Us PDF

The authors analyzed six studies that evaluated the effects of meat and vegetarian diets on mortality with a goal of giving primary care physicians evidence-based guidance. The data found the steepest rise in mortality at the smallest increases of intake of total red meat. That 2014 study followed more than one million people over 5.5 to 28 years and considered the association of processed meat (such as bacon, sausage, salami, hot dogs and ham), as well as unprocessed red meat (including uncured, unsalted beef, pork, lamb or game). Results: Physicians should advise patients to limit animal products when possible and consume more plants than meat.  They also found a 3.6-year increase in life expectancy for those on a vegetarian diet for more than 17 years, as compared to short-term vegetarians. 

Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption and All-Cause Mortality A Meta-Analysis  <<   In a dose-response meta-analysis, consumption of processed meat and total red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was statistically significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality in a nonlinear fashion.

 

Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer_ systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies  <<-Sixteen prospective cohort studies were eligible in this meta-analysis. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.6 to 26 years there were 56,423 deaths (11,512 from cardiovascular disease and 16,817 from cancer) among 833,234 participants. Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables was significantly associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality.

Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat << After thoroughly reviewing the accumulated scientific literature, a Working Group of 22 experts from 10 countries, based on limited evidence felt that the consumption of red meat causes cancer in humans and strong mechanistic evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect. Processed meat was classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans that the consumption of processed meat causes colorectal cancer. The experts concluded that each 50 gram portion of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%.

Red meat refers to unprocessed mammalian muscle meat—for example, beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, or goat meat—including minced or frozen meat; it is usually consumed cooked. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to enhance fl avour or improve preservation. Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but might also contain other red meats, poultry, off al (eg, liver), or meat byproducts such as blood.  Meat processing, such as curing and smoking, can result in formation of carcinogenic chemicals, including N-nitroso-compounds (NOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cooking improves the digestibility and palatability of meat, but can also produce known or suspected carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and PAH. High-temperature cooking by panfrying, grilling, or barbecuing generally produces the highest amounts of these chemicals. << Factors affecting heterocyclic aromatic content in meat  

The largest body of epidemiological data concerned colorectal cancer. Data on the association of red meat consumption with colorectal cancer were available from 14 cohort studies. < Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk_ the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition < [ Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [<20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; Ptrend = .03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (>80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake] Also Red Meat, Chicken, and Fish Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer <<Conclusion: Consumption of fresh red meat and processed meat seemed to be associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer. Consumption of chicken and fish did not increase risk.

Consuming well done cooked red meat increases the bacterial mutagenicity of human urine. In three intervention studies in human beings, changes in oxidative stress markers (in urine, faeces, or blood) were associated with consumption of red meat or processed meat.1 <<< Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers.

In a huge study of half a million men and women, researchers have demonstrated an association between processed meat and cardiovascular disease and cancer.  Meat consumption and mortality – results from EPIC <<< Often vegetarians have healthier lifestyles than the general population, they are less likely to smoke, are less fat, and are more likely to be physically active.  This EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study involved ten countries and 23 centres in Europe and almost half a million people. In general a diet high in processed meat was linked to other unhealthy choices. Men and women who ate the most processed meat ate the fewest fruit and vegetables and were more likely to smoke. Men who ate a lot of meat also tended to have a high alcohol consumption. A person’s risk of premature death (increased risk of all cause mortality) increased with the amount of processed meat eaten. This is also true after correcting for confounding variables. It is  estimated that 3% of premature deaths each year could be prevented if people ate less than 20g processed meat per day.

Also:

Men who regularly eat moderate amounts of processed red meat such as cold cuts (ham/salami) and sausage may have an increased risk of heart failure incidence and a greater risk of death from heart failure. <<Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure   << — Processed meats are preserved by smoking, curing, salting or adding preservatives. Examples include cold cuts (ham, salami), sausage, bacon and hot dogs. Processed red meat commonly contains sodium, nitrates, phosphates and other food additives, and smoked and grilled meats also contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, all of which may contribute to the increased heart failure risk,  The Cohort of Swedish Men study — the first to examine the effects of processed red meat separately from unprocessed red meat — included 37,035 men 45-79 years old with no history of heart failure, ischemic heart disease or cancer.  Men who ate the most processed red meat (75 grams per day or more) had a 28 percent higher risk of heart failure compared to men who ate the least (25 grams per day or less) after adjusting for multiple lifestyle variables. Men who ate the most processed red meat had more than a 2-fold increased risk of death from heart failure compared to men in the lowest category. For each 50 gram (e.g. 1-2 slices of ham) increase in daily consumption of processed meat, the risk of heart failure incidence increased by 8 percent and the risk of death from heart failure by 38 percent.

Red Meat Consumption and Mortality << Conclusions:  Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, CVD, and cancer mortality. Substitution of other healthy protein sources for red meat is associated with a lower mortality risk. We estimated that substitutions of 1 serving per day of other foods (including fish, poultry, nuts, legumes, low-fat dairy, and whole grains) for 1 serving per day of red meat were associated with a 7% to 19% lower mortality risk. We also estimated that 9.3% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women in these cohorts could be prevented at the end of follow-up if all the individuals consumed fewer than 0.5 servings per day (approximately 42 g/d) of red meat.

Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health a review  Both vegetarian diets and prudent diets allowing small amounts of red meat are associated with reduced risk of diseases, particularly CHD and type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence of an association between vegetarian diets and cancer prevention. Evidence linking red meat intake, particularly processed meat, and increased risk of CHD, cancer and type 2 diabetes is convincing and provides indirect support for consumption of a plant-based diet.

Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  << No observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate any potential association between non-fermented milk consumption and mortality from all causes, overall cardiovascular disease, and overall cancer.

Food sources of nitrates and nitrites the physiologic context for potential health benefits.   —Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure–lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization’s Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.

Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content  < The goodness of plants! Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits.

 

 

 

 

 

Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate.

Irisin, a unique non-inflammatory myokine in stimulating skeletal muscle metabolism

NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases.

Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.

Leucine treatment enhances oxidative capacity through complete carbohydrate oxidation and increased mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle cells

Leucine partially protects muscle mass and function during bed rest in middle-aged adults

PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

Mitochondrial Quality Control and Muscle Mass Maintenance.

Mitochondrial pathways in sarcopenia of aging and disuse muscle atrophy.

Sarcopenia – The search for emerging biomarkers

Biomarkers for physical frailty and sarcopenia state of the science and future developments.

Successful aging Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

Persistent Inflammation

Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on muscle loss in elderly adults

 

A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement preserves muscle mass

 

 

 

Insane Medicine – Even older people should watch their diet

Successful aging requires continued effort for the best outcome. Do you want to live to one hundred and be bed-bound or live to one hundred and be active? Successfully aging people need to consider healthful behaviors to maintain their independence and health. Conditions that affect people over sixty can be modified and lessened by nutritional strategies:

  1. Cardiovascular diseaseHigh blood pressure, cholesterol/triglycerides, and obesity are modifiable by diet and medication. Weight control allows for better mobility, less pain, and fewer heart attacks. Obesity is associated with sleep apnea, as well, which reduces quality of life because it makes you fatigued in the day time and generally weak.
  2. Cerebrovascular Disease: Such as strokes and dementia are impacted by high blood pressure and diet. First off, quit smoking to decrease your risk of dementia and stroke. Decrease your sodium intake to decrease your blood pressure (1500 mg of sodium a day is about right for an average diet.) Use herbs and spices to flavor your foods. Foods such as cold cuts, cheeses, breads, pizza, pasta dishes, snack foods, and soups have higher levels of sodium, so beware. Consider following the DASH diet: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dash  and http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/ 
  3. Diabetes Control: Diabetes affects everything from your eyes to your kidneys. There is a four-fold increased risk of death from heart disease or stroke if you are diabetic. Take your medicines, track your hemoglobin A1C (sugar control measure) and eat  food with a low glycemic index. Eat food with less fat and avoid high-sugar content items, but include more vegetables and whole grains to maintain glucose control. It takes a lot of effort if you are diabetic, so don’t let diabetes take your life one leg at a time!
  4. Cancer: Get your recommended screening examinations. Also, maintain a healthy weight since obese people have higher risks of cancer!
  5. Chronic Kidney Disease: Another disease modifiable by diet control – CKD risk is increased if you have hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or cardiovascular disease. A healthy diet and physical activity will maintain your weight and blood pressure, minimizing aging’s impact on your kidneys!

Suggestions:

  • Eat bright colored vegetables (carrots, brocolli) and deep colored fruits (berries) for phytochemical, healthy support.
  • Chose whole, enriched, fortified grains and cereals, i.e. whole wheat bread.
  • Chose low and non-fat dairy products: Yogurt and low-lactose milk
  • Use herbs and spices to add flavors to meals
  • Lots of fluids: no sodas
  • Exercise

Insane medicine – Vitamin D supplements help reduce cancer and cardiovascular risk

Vitamin D supplementation has huge beneficial health effects. First, lets discuss the physiology of Vitamin D and the effects of deficiency.

Vitamin D

The process starts with ingestion of Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) from plant sterols or yeast or with Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) obtained from oily fish.. UVB irradiation of skin 7-dehydrocholesterol can also produce vitamin D. These vitamin D precursors go to the liver where they are converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (which is what your doctor tests for to see if you are deficient in vitamin D!). 25-hydroxyvitamin D is transferred to the kidney where it is converted to the most active form, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D.
vitamin D review vitamin D

The active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will increase calcium absorption by the intestines which increases our calcium reserves
vitamin D balance vitamin D vitamin D deficiency vitamin D metabolism and deficiency vitamin D effects

 

Vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) has multiple roles in the body as shown above. There are over 300 different binding sites for Vitamin D throughout the human genome with receptors present in all human tissues.  The parathyroid glans in the neck secrete PTH to activate and regulate vitamin D.

  • Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include age>65, breastfeeding mothers, insufficient sunlight exposure, certain medications (anticonvulsants, steroids, others), obesity, physical inactivity, liver and kidney disease, and dark pigmented skin. Vitamin D deficiency was historically associated with rickets ( a bone disease)
    Insane Medicine - rickets due to vitamin D deficiency
    Insane Medicine – rickets due to vitamin D deficiency.

    Of course rickets is rare in the U.S. due to fortified foods.

  • Studies are clear that vitamin D is important for health and prevention. There is an inverse association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels with risk of death due to cardiovascular disease and cancer. In other words, low vitamin D  levels in the body are associated with higher cardiac events and higher risk of cancer!!
  • Supplementation with vitamin D3 reduces overall mortality in older adults!
  • Vitamin D deficiency is based on a blood level of less than 20 ng/mL of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. It appears that correcting vitamin D levels may be on par with health risks such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity!
  • Based on calculations from one study, 12.8% of all deaths in the U.S. can be attributed to vitamin D deficiency. So for every 10 ng/ml decline in serum vitamin D, there appears to be a 16% increase in all cause mortality.  Supplementing with vitamin D3 decreased all cause mortality by 11%. There appears to be no benefit or protection  by supplementing with vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 is less potent and active than vitamin D3. It may be that calcium is needed to be used with vitamin D2 to be effective.
  • You can obtain enough vitamin D by exposure to sunlight (UVB) for 15 minutes a day if you are light skinned. Dark skin requires up to an hour of exposure to create enough daily vitamin D. Our body produces vitamin D in the skin and does so at higher levels in the summer time. Obviously, in the winter time, we are at risk of deficiency due to less skin exposure. Sun block will prevent UVB from reaching our skin and therefore will prevent the skin from creating vitamin D.
  • Vitamin D toxicity (levels greater than 150 ng/ml) result from high intake of vitamin D (greater than 10,000 units/day)
  • The bottom line: Get your 600-800 IU of vitamin D3 every day. Vitamin D3 is the best form of vitamin D. Boosting your vitamin D levels can decrease your cardiac and cancer risks!
  • http://www.vitamincouncil.org/   <–Vitamin D information!
  • Chowdury R, et al Vitamin D and risk of cause of specific death. BMJ 2014;348:g1903.doi: 10.1136/bmj.g1903

Insane Medicine – Sugar and cancer – fats and health

  • Recently, there has been concern that sugar causes cancer. The reality is that being overweight causes cancer. In 2014, The Lancet published a study that demonstrated that for every 5 kg/meter-squared increase in weight (~30 pounds) increased  risks for cancers such as uterine, kidney, gallbladder, thyroid, and blood cancers. Why? The extra hormones and proteins created by the fat cells causes the cancer formation.
  • All cells require sugar to operate in the body, so it is impossible and unhealthy to try and starve cancer in the body by avoiding glucose. On a PET (positron emission tomography) scan, a radioactive trace bound to glucose can localized the tumor. This is because all cells utilize glucose, but cancer cells tend to take up the glucose even more than normal cells.
  • By cutting out all sugar, you will lose vitamins, antioxidants, and phytochemicals that may also play a role in beating cancer.
  • How much sugar should you consume? Women should have a maximum of six teaspoons a day (100 calories), while men can have up to nine teaspoons a day (150 calories). Currently, the average American consumes 22 teaspoons a day! The extra sugar is converted to fat in the liver.
  • Be careful of hidden added sugar in food products under the name of honey, molasses, caramel, cane juice, apple juice, lactose, dextrose, and fructose. These all are the same as sugar!
  • Avoid processed foods, such as pastries, cookies, and ice cream. Eliminate non-diet sodas, which have ~8 teaspoons of sugar per can (150 calories).
  • Likewise, one should not fear incorporating fat into your diet. Fat is important in regulating cardiac health and even blood sugar. Fat is required to absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K.
  • You want to consume polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats in your diet. Polyunsaturated fats are composed of omega-3’s which include fatty fish like salmon, herring, mackerel, and walnuts, and also they are composed of omega-6’s which are from plants in corn oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil.
  • Polyunsaturated fats in fish oil are anti-inflammatory and help lower the bad LDL cholesterol and raise the good HDL cholesterol.This decreases cardiovascular risk.
  • Monounsaturated fats, as found in olive oil, which is commonly used in the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of peripheral artery disease. They too lower the bad cholesterol numbers.
  • AVOID trans-fats, formed by partial hydrogenation and is found in margarine, vegetable shortening, and processed foods such as cookies, pastries, and cakes. Trans-fats raise the bad LDL levels and lower the HDL levels.This increases your risk of heart disease and diabetes.
  • Decrease your saturated fat intake, which is found in dairy products such as milk, cream cheese, yogurt, butter, as well as in beef, and other land animals. They can increase the bad cholesterol but tend to not affect the good cholesterol. High amounts of saturated fat increases one’s risk of cardiac events and stroke.
  • Women should eat 35-65 Grams of fat per day.Men should consume 45-75 grams of fat per day.
  • Chose skinless white poultry and lean cuts of beef to minimize fat intake. Moderate the intake of coconut oil since it is high in saturated fats. Remember, trans fats and saturated fats are mostly solid at room temperature. That means they would be solid in your arteries, so be certain to moderate intake of these type of fats.
  • Fats contain twice as many calories as either protein or carbohydrates. Men require 25% more calories as women.
  • Tip: Eat more nuts (1/4 cup a day)  : almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans, walnuts, pistachios, and pine nut!
  • Tip: use olive oil rather than butter or margarine for your bread or vegetables.
  • Tip: Eat more fish. Of note, low doses of omega-3 fatty acid rich fish oil (~1000 mg a day) may reduce the number of epileptic seizures in treatment-resistant patients.  It was shown that low dose fish oil decreased seizures by 33%!

Insane Medicine – Bisphenol A is a danger that is found in Plastic containers: Basic information

Insane Medicine - bisphenol A
Insane Medicine – bisphenol A (BPA)- causes prostate changes and behavioral changes.
  • BPA is found in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Medical devices and even cash register receipts have the toxin in it. It can leach into food in plastic containers, especially when they are heated or washed with harsh detergents.
  • It can affect behavior and also the prostate and reproductive system.
  • Some BPA-free items still have estrogen-like chemicals in them because they use Bisphenol-S (BPS). You need to find BPA and BPS- free cups or use stainless steel.
  • Avoid food containers, dishes, and cups with “PC” on them, which is polycarbonate, or have recycling label #7 on them. They will have BPA and BPS in them.
  • Choose glass, ceramic, and stainless steel.

Your guide to BPA and avoiding it is below:

http://www.ewg.org/bpa/

http://www.ecobags.com/ <–cotton and BPA safe carrier bags

 

Insane Medicine: Cancer preventing diet considerations.

Recommendations from the Physicians committee for Responsible Medicine offer 6 dietary changes one can make to help prevent cancer:

  1. Decrease dairy products in men as each 35 gm taken in will increase prostate risk by 32%
  2. Decrease alcohol intake to decrease breast and colon cancer.
  3. Decrease red and processed meat as each daily serving increases risk of colorectal cancer by 21%.
  4. Avoid grilled and fried meats.
  5. Eat soy products such as tofu, edamame, and tempeh to decrease breast cancer risk
  6. Consume more fruits and vegetables.