Tag Archives: muscle mass

Fresh meat…How sweet: A Review of the badness of meat

A review of large-scale studies involving more than 1.5 million people found all-cause mortality is higher for those who eat meat, particularly red or processed meat, on a daily basis. Conducted by physicians from Mayo Clinic in Arizona, “Is Meat Killing Us?”  Is Meat Killing Us PDF

The authors analyzed six studies that evaluated the effects of meat and vegetarian diets on mortality with a goal of giving primary care physicians evidence-based guidance. The data found the steepest rise in mortality at the smallest increases of intake of total red meat. That 2014 study followed more than one million people over 5.5 to 28 years and considered the association of processed meat (such as bacon, sausage, salami, hot dogs and ham), as well as unprocessed red meat (including uncured, unsalted beef, pork, lamb or game). Results: Physicians should advise patients to limit animal products when possible and consume more plants than meat.  They also found a 3.6-year increase in life expectancy for those on a vegetarian diet for more than 17 years, as compared to short-term vegetarians. 

Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption and All-Cause Mortality A Meta-Analysis  <<   In a dose-response meta-analysis, consumption of processed meat and total red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was statistically significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality in a nonlinear fashion.

 

Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer_ systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies  <<-Sixteen prospective cohort studies were eligible in this meta-analysis. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.6 to 26 years there were 56,423 deaths (11,512 from cardiovascular disease and 16,817 from cancer) among 833,234 participants. Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables was significantly associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality.

Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat << After thoroughly reviewing the accumulated scientific literature, a Working Group of 22 experts from 10 countries, based on limited evidence felt that the consumption of red meat causes cancer in humans and strong mechanistic evidence supporting a carcinogenic effect. Processed meat was classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans that the consumption of processed meat causes colorectal cancer. The experts concluded that each 50 gram portion of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18%.

Red meat refers to unprocessed mammalian muscle meat—for example, beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton, horse, or goat meat—including minced or frozen meat; it is usually consumed cooked. Processed meat refers to meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to enhance fl avour or improve preservation. Most processed meats contain pork or beef, but might also contain other red meats, poultry, off al (eg, liver), or meat byproducts such as blood.  Meat processing, such as curing and smoking, can result in formation of carcinogenic chemicals, including N-nitroso-compounds (NOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cooking improves the digestibility and palatability of meat, but can also produce known or suspected carcinogens, including heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and PAH. High-temperature cooking by panfrying, grilling, or barbecuing generally produces the highest amounts of these chemicals. << Factors affecting heterocyclic aromatic content in meat  

The largest body of epidemiological data concerned colorectal cancer. Data on the association of red meat consumption with colorectal cancer were available from 14 cohort studies. < Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk_ the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition < [ Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [<20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; Ptrend = .03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (>80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake] Also Red Meat, Chicken, and Fish Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer <<Conclusion: Consumption of fresh red meat and processed meat seemed to be associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer. Consumption of chicken and fish did not increase risk.

Consuming well done cooked red meat increases the bacterial mutagenicity of human urine. In three intervention studies in human beings, changes in oxidative stress markers (in urine, faeces, or blood) were associated with consumption of red meat or processed meat.1 <<< Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers.

In a huge study of half a million men and women, researchers have demonstrated an association between processed meat and cardiovascular disease and cancer.  Meat consumption and mortality – results from EPIC <<< Often vegetarians have healthier lifestyles than the general population, they are less likely to smoke, are less fat, and are more likely to be physically active.  This EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study involved ten countries and 23 centres in Europe and almost half a million people. In general a diet high in processed meat was linked to other unhealthy choices. Men and women who ate the most processed meat ate the fewest fruit and vegetables and were more likely to smoke. Men who ate a lot of meat also tended to have a high alcohol consumption. A person’s risk of premature death (increased risk of all cause mortality) increased with the amount of processed meat eaten. This is also true after correcting for confounding variables. It is  estimated that 3% of premature deaths each year could be prevented if people ate less than 20g processed meat per day.

Also:

Men who regularly eat moderate amounts of processed red meat such as cold cuts (ham/salami) and sausage may have an increased risk of heart failure incidence and a greater risk of death from heart failure. <<Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure   << — Processed meats are preserved by smoking, curing, salting or adding preservatives. Examples include cold cuts (ham, salami), sausage, bacon and hot dogs. Processed red meat commonly contains sodium, nitrates, phosphates and other food additives, and smoked and grilled meats also contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, all of which may contribute to the increased heart failure risk,  The Cohort of Swedish Men study — the first to examine the effects of processed red meat separately from unprocessed red meat — included 37,035 men 45-79 years old with no history of heart failure, ischemic heart disease or cancer.  Men who ate the most processed red meat (75 grams per day or more) had a 28 percent higher risk of heart failure compared to men who ate the least (25 grams per day or less) after adjusting for multiple lifestyle variables. Men who ate the most processed red meat had more than a 2-fold increased risk of death from heart failure compared to men in the lowest category. For each 50 gram (e.g. 1-2 slices of ham) increase in daily consumption of processed meat, the risk of heart failure incidence increased by 8 percent and the risk of death from heart failure by 38 percent.

Red Meat Consumption and Mortality << Conclusions:  Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, CVD, and cancer mortality. Substitution of other healthy protein sources for red meat is associated with a lower mortality risk. We estimated that substitutions of 1 serving per day of other foods (including fish, poultry, nuts, legumes, low-fat dairy, and whole grains) for 1 serving per day of red meat were associated with a 7% to 19% lower mortality risk. We also estimated that 9.3% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women in these cohorts could be prevented at the end of follow-up if all the individuals consumed fewer than 0.5 servings per day (approximately 42 g/d) of red meat.

Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health a review  Both vegetarian diets and prudent diets allowing small amounts of red meat are associated with reduced risk of diseases, particularly CHD and type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence of an association between vegetarian diets and cancer prevention. Evidence linking red meat intake, particularly processed meat, and increased risk of CHD, cancer and type 2 diabetes is convincing and provides indirect support for consumption of a plant-based diet.

Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.  << No observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate any potential association between non-fermented milk consumption and mortality from all causes, overall cardiovascular disease, and overall cancer.

Food sources of nitrates and nitrites the physiologic context for potential health benefits.   —Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure–lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization’s Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.

Nitrate-containing beetroot enhances myocyte metabolism and mitochondrial content  < The goodness of plants! Cells treated with beetroot exhibited significantly increased oxidative metabolism, concurrently with elevated metabolic gene expression including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and glucose transporter 4, leading to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data show that treatment with a beetroot supplement increases basal oxidative metabolism. Our observations are also among the first to demonstrate that beetroot extract is an inducer of metabolic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. These observations support the need for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of nitrate-containing supplements for health and athletic benefits.

 

 

 

 

 

Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate.

Irisin, a unique non-inflammatory myokine in stimulating skeletal muscle metabolism

NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases.

Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.

Leucine treatment enhances oxidative capacity through complete carbohydrate oxidation and increased mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle cells

Leucine partially protects muscle mass and function during bed rest in middle-aged adults

PGC-1α-mediated adaptations in skeletal muscle

Mitochondrial Quality Control and Muscle Mass Maintenance.

Mitochondrial pathways in sarcopenia of aging and disuse muscle atrophy.

Sarcopenia – The search for emerging biomarkers

Biomarkers for physical frailty and sarcopenia state of the science and future developments.

Successful aging Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

Persistent Inflammation

Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on muscle loss in elderly adults

 

A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement preserves muscle mass

 

 

 

Insane Medicine – Dropping the acid content in your diet improves bone health and muscle health: The PRAL (potential renal acid load)

The foods that we eat produce acid in the body that can lead to increased bone breakdown and increase the risk of kidney stones as well. Certain food, such as cereal grains and proteins are associated increased with overall acid production. Fruits and vegetables produce a net alkaline environment in the body. This has a positive effect on bone health and muscle strength.

  • Too much acid intake from acid producing foods has negative effects in our bodies such as increased bone breakdown and osteoporosis and also muscle loss. In addition, certain types of kidney stones have increased formation when the diet is too high in acidifying food sources.
  • Of interest is that muscle strength can be improved by having a more alkaline diet. In an acidic environment, the body wastes muscle to get rid of the acid. The muscle releases amino acids which neutralizes the acidic hydrogen ions. Hence the muscular system acts like a acid-base status regulator.
  • Bones store calcium and this tends to get leached out in acidic environments. Bone is an alkaline reservoir that breaks down to neutralize body acid. Studies have shown that potassium citrate, when taken orally, breaks down in to an alkali which protects bone from breaking down, thus decreasing fracture risk. Potassium bicarbonate may also do the same.
  • Fruits and vegetables generally break down into alkali. Orange juice (which is acidic in the mouth), gets broken down into alkali in the body. So it is the metabolism of the fruits and vegetables in the body that makes them acidic or alkaline, not the way that they taste.
  • It has been found that diet intake  can acidify or alkalinize the urine. This is beneficial in kidney stones, in which infective stones such as struvite and calcium phosphate stones can be reduced by acidifying the urine with a more acid diet. Likewise, cystine and uric acid stones can have the urine alkalinized to reduce the presence of these kidney stones.
  • The potential renal acid load of foods are listed below as PRAL. Negative PRAL foods (fruits and vegetable) metabolize to alkali in the body, whereas positive PRAL foods (cereal grains, protein)  break down into acids in the body.

 

 

Nutrienta content (10) and estimated potential renal acid load (PRAL)b of 114 frequently consumed foods and beverages (related to 100-g edible portion

Food group and food Energy Protein Na K Ca Mg P Cl SO4b PEXb ALEXb PRALb
kcal g ←mg→ ←mEq→
Beverages
Beer, draft 32 0.3 12 38 11 9 13 32 0.1 0.1 0.4 −0.2
Beer, pale (Vollbier, hell)c 45 0.5 5 38 4 9 28 35 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.9
Beer, stout, bottled 37 0.3 23 45 8 8 17 48 0.1 0.3 0.6 −0.1
Coca-Cola 39 0.0 8 1 4 1 15 10 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.4
Cocoa, made with semi-skimmed milk 57 3.5 70 170 120 20 100 100 1.7 1.6 3.7 −0.4
Coffee, infusion, 5 minutes 2 0.2 0 66 2 6 2 0 0.1 −0.1 1.4 −1.4
Mineral water (Apollinaris)d 0 0.0 43 3 9 10 0 14 0.0 −0.4 1.5 −1.8
Mineral water (Volvic)d 0 0.0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 −0.1
Red wine 68 0.2 10 130 7 11 14 18 0.1 0.1 2.6 −2.4
Tea, Indian, infusion 0 0.1 0 17 0 1 1 0 0.0 0.0 0.3 −0.3
White wine, dry 66 0.1 4 61 9 8 6 10 0.0 −0.1 1.1 −1.2
Fats and oils
Butter 737 0.5 11 15 15 2 24 17 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.6
Margarine 739 0.2 800 5 4 1 12 1,200 0.1 0.4 1.0 −0.5
Olive oil 899 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sunflower seed oil 899 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Fish
Cod, fillets 76 17.4 77 320 16 23 170 110 8.5 5.4 6.8 7.1
Haddock 73 16.8 120 300 18 23 170 160 8.2 5.4 6.8 6.8
Herring 234 16.8 67 340 33 29 210 76 8.2 6.5 7.7 7.0
Trout, brown, steamed 135 23.5 88 370 36 31 270 70 11.5 8.6 9.3 10.8
Fruits, nuts, and fruit juices
Apple juice, unsweetened 38 0.1 2 110 7 5 6 3 0.0 0.0 2.3 −2.2
Apples, 15 varieties, flesh and skin, average 47 0.4 3 120 4 5 11 0 0.2 0.2 2.6 −2.2
Apricots 31 0.9 2 270 15 11 20 3 0.4 0.3 5.5 −4.8
Bananas 95 1.2 1 400 6 34 28 79 0.6 0.1 6.1 −5.5
Black currants 28 0.9 3 370 60 17 43 15 0.4 0.4 7.3 −6.5
Cherries 48 0.9 1 210 13 10 21 0 0.4 0.3 4.3 3.6
Grape juice, unsweetened 46 0.3 7 55 19 7 14 6 0.1 0.1 1.3 −1.0
Hazelnuts 650 14.1 6 730 140 160 300 18 6.9 5.0 14.7 −2.8
Kiwi fruit 49 1.1 4 290 25 15 32 39 0.5 0.5 5.1 −4.1
Lemon juice 7 0.3 1 130 7 7 8 3 0.1 0.0 2.6 −2.5
Orange juice, unsweetened 36 0.5 10 150 10 8 13 9 0.2 0.1 3.2 −2.9
Oranges 37 1.1 5 150 47 10 21 3 0.5 −0.1 3.2 −2.7
Peaches 33 1.0 1 160 7 9 22 0 0.5 0.5 3.3 −2.4
Peanuts, plain 564 25.6 2 670 60 210 430 7 12.5 9.5 13.6 8.3
Pears, 3 varieties, flesh and skin, average 40 0.3 3 150 11 7 13 1 0.1 0.2 3.2 −2.9
Pineapple 41 0.4 2 160 18 16 10 29 0.2 −0.3 2.6 −2.7
Raisins 272 2.1 60 1,020 46 35 76 9 1.0 1.3 23.1 −21.0
Strawberries 27 0.8 6 160 16 10 24 18 0.4 0.4 3.0 −2.2
Walnuts 688 14.7 7 450 94 160 380 24 7.2 8.5 8.9 6.8
Watermelon 31 0.5 2 100 7 8 9 0 0.2 0.0 2.1 −1.9
Grain products
Bread, rye flour, mixedc,e 211 6.4 537 185 23 0 136 827 3.1 4.7 3.8 4.0
Bread, rye flourc,e 194 6.8 527 291 43 0 198 812 3.3 6.7 6.0 4.1
Bread, wheat flour, mixedc,e 233 6.2 553 177 17 0 127 852 3.0 4.4 3.6 3.8
Bread, wheat flour, whole mealc,e 198 7.0 380 270 63 92 196 585 3.4 4.0 5.6 1.8
Bread, white wheat 235 8.4 520 110 110 24 91 820 4.1 1.3 1.8 3.7
Cornflakes 360 7.9 1,110 100 15 14 50 1,820 3.9 1.3 −0.9 6.0
Crispbread, rye 321 9.4 220 500 45 100 310 370 4.6 8.2 9.4 3.3
Noodles, egg 391 12.1 180 260 28 43 200 277 5.9 5.8 5.3 6.4
Oat flakes, rolled oats (Haferflocken)c 355 12.5 5 335 54 139 391 61 6.1 10.0 5.4 10.7
Rice, brown 357 6.7 3 250 10 110 310 230 3.3 8.3 −0.9 12.5
Rice, white, easy cook 383 7.3 4 150 51 32 150 10 3.6 4.0 3.0 4.6
Rice, white, easy cook, boiled 138 2.6 1 54 18 11 54 4 1.3 1.5 1.0 1.7
Rye flour, whole 335 8.2 1 410 32 92 360 0 4.0 10.4 8.4 5.9
Spaghetti, white 342 12.0 3 250 25 56 190 25 5.9 5.2 4.6 6.5
Spaghetti, whole meal 324 13.4 130 390 31 120 330 210 6.5 8.5 7.7 7.3
Wheat flour, white, plain 341 9.4 3 150 15 20 110 81 4.6 3.3 1.0 6.9
White flour, whole meal 310 12.7 3 340 38 120 320 38 6.2 8.1 6.1 8.2
Legumes
Beans, green/French beans 24 1.9 0 230 36 17 38 9 0.9 0.5 4.5 −3.1
Lentils, green and brown, whole, dried 297 24.3 12 940 71 110 350 87 11.9 9.0 17.4 3.5
Peas 83 6.9 1 330 21 34 130 39 3.4 3.6 5.8 1.2
Meat and meat products
Beef, lean only 123 20.3 61 350 7 20 180 59 9.9 6.0 8.1 7.8
Chicken, meat only 121 20.5 81 320 10 25 200 78 10.0 6.5 7.8 8.7
Corned beef, canned 217 26.9 950 140 14 15 120 1,430 13.1 3.8 3.8 13.2
Frankfurterse 274 9.5 980 98 34 9 130 1,509 4.6 4.1 2.0 6.7
Liver sausagee 310 12.9 860 170 26 12 230 1,324 6.3 7.8 3.5 10.6
Luncheon meat, cannede 313 12.6 1,050 140 15 8 200 1,617 6.2 6.9 2.9 10.2
Pork, lean only 147 20.7 76 370 8 22 200 71 10.1 6.6 8.8 7.9
Rump steak, lean and fat 197 18.9 51 330 6 20 210 49 9.2 7.1 7.6 8.8
Salamie 491 19.3 1,850 160 10 10 160 2,849 9.4 5.5 3.3 11.6
Turkey, meat only 107 21.9 54 300 8 23 190 48 10.7 6.2 7.1 9.9
Veal, fillet 109 21.1 110 360 8 25 260 68 10.3 8.8 10.1 9.0
Milk, dairy products, and eggs
Buttermilkc 39 3.5 57 147 109 16 90 100 1.7 1.5 2.7 0.5
Camemberte 297 20.9 650 100 350 21 310 1,001 10.2 6.4 2.1 14.6
Cheddar-type, reduced fat 261 31.5 670 110 840 39 620 1,110 15.4 11.2 0.2 26.4
Cheese, Gouda 375 24.0 910 91 740 38 490 1,440 11.7 7.7 0.9 18.6
Cottage cheese, plain 98 13.8 380 89 73 9 160 550 6.7 4.7 2.8 8.7
Creams, fresh, sour 205 2.9 41 110 93 10 81 81 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.2
Eggs, chicken, whole 147 12.5 140 130 57 12 200 160 6.1 6.3 4.2 8.2
Eggs, whitef 36 9.0 190 150 5 11 33 170 6.6 0.9 6.4 1.1
Eggs, yolk 339 16.1 50 120 130 15 500 140 7.9 16.3 0.8 23.4
Fresh cheese (Quark)c 112 12.5 35 87 85 11 165 130 6.1 4.7 −0.3 11.1
Full-fat soft cheesee 313 8.6 330 150 110 9 130 508 4.2 3.1 3.1 4.3
Hard cheese, average of 4 types 405 24.7 620 82 670 24 470 980 12.1 8.2 1.0 19.2
Ice cream, dairy, vanilla 194 3.6 69 160 130 13 110 110 1.8 2.1 3.2 0.6
Milk, whole, evaporated 151 8.4 180 360 290 29 260 250 4.1 5.1 8.1 1.1
Milk, whole, pasteurized and sterilized 66 3.2 55 140 115 11 92 100 1.6 1.6 2.5 0.7
Parmesan 452 39.4 1,090 110 1,200 45 810 1,820 19.3 13.5 −1.5 34.2
Processed cheese, plaine 330 20.8 1,320 130 600 22 800 2,033 10.2 21.2 2.7 28.7
Yogurt, whole milk, fruit 105 5.1 82 210 160 16 130 150 2.5 2.3 3.7 1.2
Yogurt, whole milk, plain 79 5.7 80 280 200 19 170 170 2.8 3.2 4.5 1.5
Sugar, preserves, and sweets
Chocolates, milk 529 8.4 120 420 220 55 240 270 4.1 4.6 6.3 2.4
Honey 288 0.4 11 51 5 2 17 18 0.2 0.5 1.0 −0.3
Madeira cakee 393 5.4 380 120 42 12 120 585 2.6 3.6 2.5 3.7
Marmalade 261 0.1 18 44 35 4 13 7 0.0 −0.1 1.5 −1.5
Sugar, white 409 0.0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 −0.1
Vegetables
Asparagus 25 2.9 1 260 27 13 72 60 1.4 2.0 3.8 −0.4
Broccoli, green 33 4.4 8 370 56 22 87 100 2.2 1.9 5.2 −1.2
Carrots, young 30 0.7 40 240 34 9 25 39 0.3 0.3 5.5 −4.9
Cauliflower 34 3.6 9 380 21 17 64 28 1.8 1.6 7.4 −4.0
Celery 7 0.5 60 320 41 5 21 130 0.2 0.1 5.6 −5.2
Chicory 11 0.5 1 170 21 6 27 25 0.2 0.6 2.9 −2.0
Cucumber 10 0.7 3 140 18 8 49 17 0.3 1.4 2.5 −0.8
Eggplant 15 0.9 2 210 10 11 16 14 0.4 0.2 4.0 −3.4
Leeks 22 1.6 2 260 24 3 44 59 0.8 1.2 3.8 −1.8
Lettuce, average of 4 varieties 14 0.8 3 220 28 6 28 47 0.4 0.5 3.4 −2.5
Lettuce, iceberg 13 0.7 2 160 19 5 18 42 0.3 0.3 2.2 −1.6
Mushrooms, common 13 1.8 5 320 6 9 80 69 0.9 2.6 4.9 −1.4
Onions 36 1.2 3 160 25 4 30 25 0.6 0.7 2.7 −1.5
Peppers, Capiscum, green 15 0.8 4 120 8 10 19 19 0.4 0.3 2.1 −1.4
Potatoes, old 75 2.1 7 360 5 17 37 66 1.0 0.8 5.9 −4.0
Radish, red 12 0.7 11 240 19 5 20 37 0.3 0.4 4.4 −3.7
Spinach 25 2.8 140 500 170 54 45 98 1.4 −1.9 13.4 −14.0
Tomato juice 14 0.8 230 230 10 10 19 400 0.4 0.3 3.5 −2.8
Tomatoes 17 0.7 9 250 7 7 24 55 0.3 0.6 4.0 −3.1
Zucchini 18 1.8 1 360 25 22 45 45 0.9 0.8 6.2 −4.6
a
Key: Na = sodium; K = potassium; Ca = calcium; Mg = magnesium; P = phosphorus; Cl = chloride.

b
The characteristic postabsorption determinants of PRAL are also presented; these are the primarily protein-dependent urinary sulfate excretion: SO4; the phosphate excess: PEX (PEX [mEq] = PO – Ca – Mg); and the alkali excess: ALEX (ALEX [mEq] = Na + K – Cl). Each is estimated from the corresponding nutrient data by the conversion factors described in Table 1; PRAL (mEq of Cl + P04 + S04 – Na – K – Ca – Mg) also corresonds to SO4 + PEX – ALEX.

c
Data were derived from reference (32).

d
Data were derived from the manufacturer’s literature (Apollinaris, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Germany; Volvic, Puy-de-Dome, France).

e
For those processed (ie, salted) foods for which the tabulated Cl contents deviated by more than ± 10% from the values determined under the assumption of an equimolar Na and Cl content, Cl was calculated from the listed Na data on an equimolar basis, ie, Cl (mg) = Na (mg) × 1.54.

f
For egg white protein, known to have a particularly high methionine and cysteine content, a 1.5-fold higher conversion factor (ie, 0.7332×10−3) was used to estimate renal sulfate excretion. Methionine and cysteine content related to 100 g protein is approximately 1.5-fold higher for egg white than, eg, for beef (32).

 

 

Average potential renal acid loads (PRAL)a of certain food groups and combined foods (related to 100-g edible portion

Food group PRAL (mEq)
Beverages
Alkali-rich and low phosphorusb −1.7
Alkali-poor and low phosphorusc 0
Fats and oils 0
Fish 7.9
Fruits and fruit juicesd −3.1
Grain productse
Bread 3.5
Flour 7.0
Noodles, spaghetti 6.7
Meat and meat products 9.5
Milk and dairy products
Milk and noncheese productsf 1.0
Cheeses with lower protein contentg 8.0
Cheeses with higher protein contenth 23.6
Vegetablesi −2.8
a
Data represent the arithmetic mean of the PRAL values of the respective foods listed in Table 2.

b
Beverages (phosphorus <30 mg/100 g) with several times higher sodium + potassium content compared to chloride, for example, red wine, white wine, certain mineral (soda) waters, and coffee.

c
Beverages (phosphorus <30mg/100 g) with similar sodium + potassium vs chloride content. Cocoa (alkali- and phosphorus-rich) also falls in this PRAL category. Because of a medium phosphorus content (eg, 28mg/100 g) some European pale beers have a relatively high PRAL value (about 1mEq/100 g).

d
Without dried fruits.

e
Irrespective of the type of flour (whole meal or white, plain).

f
Primarily whey based.

g
Less than 15g protein per 100g.

h
More than 15g protein per 100g.

i
Without asparagus (very low alkali excess) and spinach (very high alkali excess).

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2585554/  < Plant based diets can alkalinize the urine.

http://firstendurance.com/2009/08/27/the-ph-of-foods-and-their-effect-on-performance/  < PH of foods enhance performance.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002822395002197  < Potential renal acid loads of food and urine PH effect.

http://easyph.com.au/cms/images/articlepdf/excessprotein.pdf  < Excessive protein and acid load can effect bone turnover.

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/77/5/1255.full < renal acid

http://jn.nutrition.org/content/133/10/3239.full  < Meat and acid base status

 

http://www.vivalis.si/uploads/datoteke/2a95.pdf  < Urine PH and acid load of diet

 

 

 

Insane Medicine – Muscle mass predicts longevity in older adults!

A study in the American Journal of Medicine (June 2014) showed that people over the age of 55 who had the highest muscle mass lived longer than those with the least amount of muscle mass. BMI (Body mass index) is not correlated as well with mortality since a person with a high BMI can have a lot of fat OR muscle or both.

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm   – Calculate your BMI with this link!

Insane Medicine – Keep your muscle mass maximized at all ages!!!

Insane Medicine - Keep your muscle mass throughout life!
Insane Medicine – Keep your muscle mass throughout life!
  • As we get older, we lose muscle mass. This mass decreases rapidly during times of illness and hospitalizations, which is why grandma may enter the hospital for an infection and never leave her bed again! Her muscles were minimally compensated as were, and after an illness, there is not enough muscle power left for everyday activities, like getting out of bed!!
  • Muscle-strengthening exercises preserve muscle mass but must be combined with adequate dietary protein intake.
  • Sarcopenia (the loss of muscle mass) results in poor muscle strength, increasing the risk of falls and lack of independence.
  • There is an association between protein intake and muscle mass that varies with physical activity. Women need 46 grams of protein a day, men need 56 grams of protein a day. The exact amount is variable depending on a number of factors, but 0.8 grams of protein is needed per 2.2 pounds (one kg). If you are obese, more protein may be helpful.
  • You need High quality protein! Meat, poultry, and fish are complete sources, and the only vegetable source that is complete is soy.
  • Complete protein sources have all the essential amino acids. Grains are not complete because they are low in lysine, while legumes are low in methionine. Grains and legumes are still excellent sources of protein.
  • You need to combine high intakes of beef and pork with vigorous aerobic activity to obtain the highest muscle mass. Exercises that are excellent include swimming, cycling, running, and aerobics classes at least 30 minutes a day. You need to break a sweat!
  • If you don’t use it, you lose it!!
  • Lose unnecessary weight – Losing even ten percent of your body weight gives health benefits that last a decade and decrease diabetes risk by 50%! It also decreases hypertension and sleep apnea. Weight loss decreases the stress on your knees and hips, allowing you to maintain mobility and independence.
  • Try to get 30 minutes of physical activity a day – consider getting a pedometer or fit-bit to monitor your activity and encourage movement.  Low activity is less than 3500 steps a day ( a mile is 2000 steps) Those who walk more, had lower diabetes risk. Also, the more you move, the less pain you have!